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MLA Bibliographic Style Guide

MLA Bibliographic Style~A Brief Guide

  • Download sample papers (MLA & APA styles): Hacker & Fister’s Research & Documentation Online
  • Bibme: Free citation generator that pulls reference content from a database of resources.

For full information about the visit our Research Paper Guide.


APA: You can find advice on using APA style at the Purdue OWL and at the APA Home site

NEW!!! For specific APA examples!


This handout is designed to be a quick reference guide to the MLA style of documenting sources in research papers. Your “Works Cited” section should appear at the end of your paper and works should be arranged alphabetically by author (or title, if no author appears in the entry.) In this section you should list only works actually cited. (Your teacher may also request a list of works consulted.) For further information about types of entries not listed here, consult Joseph Gibaldi’s MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th edition, which is available at the circulation desk. For further information, consult the official page of the Modern Language Association http://www.mla.org.

Check out the Citation Styles Online at http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/citex.html , the Guide for Writing Research Papers based on Modern Language Association prepared by the Humanities Department and the Arthur C. Banks, Jr., Library Capital Community-Technical College Hartford, Connecticut http://cctc.commnet.edu/mla.htm or Sources: Their Use and Acknowledgment by Dartmouth College http://www.dartmouth.edu/~sources/ or Duke University Libraries Citing Sources http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/works_cited.

Underlining vs. italics: Though MLA style traditionally recommended underlining the titles of major works,  many publications now utilize italics. Springfield Township prefers underlining. The MLA Web site addresses this fascinating controversy! “Most word processing programs and computer printers permit the reproduction of italic type. In material that will be graded or edited for publication, however, the type style of every letter and punctuation mark must be easily recognizable. Italic type is sometimes not distinctive enough for this purpose. . .If you wish to use italics rather than underlining, check your instructor’s or editor’s preferences.”

Other tips:

  • If no author is given, start the citation with the title.
  • Abbreviate the names of all months except May, June and July.
  • Indent the second line and all other lines 5 spaces.

Also try a citation generator!


Note: MLA recommends double spacing citations, but many teachers (including some here at Springfield) prefer citations single spaced. Please check to determine your teacher’s preferences.


Print Sources:

Format for the “WORKS CITED” section:

A Book By One Author

English, Carol. The Cliffs Won’t Do: Read the Book. Philadelphia: McGraw Hill, 1997.

Two or More Books by the Same Author

Small, Chris. Please, Help Me Carry My Keys! Topeka: Rand, 1993.

– – – . Don’t Measure a Chemist by Her Size. New York: Feminist, 1993.

A Book By Two Authors

Drucker, Darla and Amy Jones. How to Survive Your Wedding. New York: Simon and

Schuster, 1997.

A Book by Three Authors

Simpson, Homer, Bugs Bunny, and Charlie Brown.  Cartoon Life is a Drag. Los Angeles: Warner

Bros., 2004.

A Book by a Corporate Author

Springfield Township Home Economics Department. Cooking with Spice. New York:

Scribners, 1993.

A Book with an Editor

Valenza, Joyce ed. Bagels and Books: An Anthology. Brooklyn, NY: Random House,

1991.

A Work in an Anthology

Smith, James. “The Physics of Sushi.” The Fabulous Physics Paper . Ed. Samuel Klein.

Rome: Cambridge UP, 1854. 46-59.

A Work (Essay, Story, etc.) in an Anthology Previously Published in Another Collection

Girard, Rene. “Hamlet’s Dull Revenge.” Literary Theory / Renaissance Texts. Ed. Patricia

Parker and David Quint.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1986. 280-302.  Rpt. in Major Literary

Characters: Hamlet. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1990. 166-185.

An Edition Other Than the First

Peters, Michael. Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Keeping Your Classroom

Neat and Clean . 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lysol, 1995.

A Signed Article in a Reference Book

Copaset, Sandra. “Zen and the Art of Wearing Blue and Khaki.” Encyclopedia Americana.

2009 ed.

An Unsigned Article in a Reference Book

“Best Beards of All Time.” Encyclopedia of Anatomy and Hair . 15th ed. 1993.

An Article in a Journal with Continuous Pagination

Skater, Andrew. “Rollerblading on a Secondary Level.” Secondary Education 54(1990):

113-25.

An Article From a Monthly or Bi-Monthly Periodical

Ramsey, Pamela. “Where’s My Smiley Face?” MacWorld Sept. 1997: 86-94.

An Article from a Weekly or Biweekly Periodical

Henry, Mary Ann. “Announcing Bus Changes With Flair.” Time 4 July 1991: 17-76.

A Signed Article from a Daily Newspaper

Goldberg, Grace. “The Inside Track: Alumni Life.” Trojan Times 10 Oct. 1991: 17.

Smith, Bob. “Schools Losing Ground.” USA Today 5 May 2001:5D.

An Unsigned Article from a Daily Newspaper

“Striking a Pose With Sally Miles.” New York Times 15 Oct. 1997, late ed. sec.: 35+.

A Critical Analysis, Signed Excerpt / Previously Published Scholarly Article (Option #1)

(Check for your teacher’s preferred option.)

Ross, Stephan S. “Tom Wolfe.” Rpt. of “The Rhetoric of the Right Stuff.”

Journal of General Education 33 (1981): 113-22.  Rpt. in Contemporary

Literary Criticism. Ed.  Daniel G. Marowski. 35: 458-460.

A Critical Analysis, Signed Excerpt (Option # 2)  (Check for your teacher’s preferred option.)

Ross, Stephan S. “Tom Wolfe.” Contemporary  Literary Criticism. Ed.  Daniel G. Marowski.

35: 458-460.

Facts on File

“Berger’s Greatest Speeches.” Facts on File World News Digest 3 Sept. 1998: 535.

SIRS (Print Notebooks)

McLaughlin, Janet. “AP History–The McLaughlin Group.” Forbes June 1993: 21-23.

History. Ed. by Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton, Fla: Social Issues Resources

Series, 1995. Art. 35.

Films; Radio and Television Programs

“Starring the Other Peggy Lee.” Slightly Off Broadway–The Series . Prod. Sheldon Wang.

PBS. WNET, New York. 6 Aug. 1995.

Making Creative Bookcovers. Dir. Tom Martin. Videocassette. Clemens, 1997.

Sound Recording

Jones, Norah. “Don’t Know Why.”  Come Away With Me. Rec. 2001. Blue Note, 2002.

Personal or Telephone Interview

Craig, John. Personal interview. 23 Sept. 1994.

Personal photograph (Good for your scanned images!)

(Begin with a description of the photo. Do not use italics or quotation marks. Indicate who took the photo and the date it was taken.)

Grandpa Al at Home. Personal photograph by Susan Student. 28 May 2003.


Citing works within your text:

To document your sources, cite the author’s name and the page number of the source in

parentheses at the end of the sentence, before the final period:

Lowfat cream cheese can save you 300 grams of fat per year (Valenza 35).

If the author’s name is used in your sentence you may just refer to page numbers:

Copaset argues that “yellow simply does not interact well with khaki” (45).

If you are referring to the whole work rather than a specific section, you may omit any

reference in parentheses:

Berger’s main thesis is that by using motifs, organic unity is easier to achieve.


Citing Electronic Sources

WWW (general) online encyclopedia article journal article (database)(EBSCO, JSTOR, elibrary, InfoTrac, CQ Researcher, Proquest Historical Newspapers) SIRS Facts.com GaleNet:Biography Resource Center/Literature Resource Center/Student Resource CenterWilson / Biography Reference Bank
CD-ROM e-mail listserv usenet newsgroup chat Images/Sound/Video ClipsAP Photo Archive
Magazine article on the Web Beyond Books e-book from netLibrary blog entry wikis / Wikipedia

In-text documentation

Please see examples of in-text documentation in our Research Guide.

Long quotes in text: If your quotation runs more than four lines in your paper, set it off as a block quotation. Begin a new line and indent one inch from the left margin. A block quote does not require quotation marks.  Although other types of punctuation are sometimes used, writers generally introduce a block quote with a colon.  Unlike quoting in text, the ending punctuation in a block quote follows the text, not the parenthetic reference.

Uniform standards are being developed to address the changes in information. Sites devoted to cybercitation issues are popping up all over the Web. These sites vary in their interpretation of how MLA applies to online sources, but the patterns in each example are similar. What is most important in documenting electronic resources, is to give the reader as much essential information as possible (e.g. author, title, publication data) to identify the source you are citing. Remember to check http://www.mla.org for more information.

Parenthetical notes: One of the most frequently asked questions these days is “How do I prepare a parenthetical note for a Web page if a Web page has no page numbers?”

The MLA has an answer: “For any type of source, you must include information in your text that directs readers to the correct entry in the works-cited list. . .Web documents generally do not have fixed page numbers or any kind of section numbering. If your source lacks numbering, omit numbers from your parenthetical references. If your source includes fixed page numbers or section numbering (such as numbering of paragraphs), cite the relevant numbers. Give the appropriate abbreviation before the numbers (Moulthrop, pars. 19-20).” (Pars. is the abbreviation for paragraphs.) For a document on the Web, the page numbers of a printout should normally not be cited, because the pagination may vary in different printouts.”


Electronic / Online Sources

World Wide Web (General Web site):

Format:

Author (if known). “Title of Page or Document.” Title of the Site or Larger Work. (if applicable).

Date of electronic publication, last update, or date of posting. Name of any

Associated Institution. Date of download. < http://address/filename&gt;.

Examples:

Smith, George. “Science and the World Wide Web.” 8 June 1999.

Southville High School Website. 3 Oct. 2000.

<http://www.fred.net/nhhs/html3/article3.htm&gt;.

or

Smith, George. “Graf Has Look of a Champion.” ESPNET SportsZone. 29 Aug. 1996.

<http://www.espn.com/gen/top/0108716001.html&gt;.


Article in an online magazine (not accessed through a subscription service)

Format:

Author of article. Title of article. Title of Magazine Date of electronic publication. Date of access.

<http://address/filename&gt;.

Example:

Smith, Jane. “Who Really Invented the Internet?” Web Weekly 26 Feb 2001. 4 May 2001.

<http://webweekly.com/smithwho/&gt;.


Article in an online encyclopedia:

Format:

Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Reference Work. Edition or version (if available).

Date of electronic publication. Title of Database or Online Service.

Name of Providing Library, Consortium or Library System (if appropriate).

Date of access. < http://address/filename&gt;.

Example:

Cook, Sarah Gibbard. “Berlin, Germany.” Encyclopedia Americana Online. Springfield

Township HS Lib. Mar. 1997. Grolier Online. 29 Feb. 1999.

<http://grolier.go.com&gt;.


Journal material accessed from a subscription service (EBSCO, JSTOR, elibrary, InfoTrac, CQ Researcher, ProQuest Historical Newspapers, etc.):

Format:

Author. “Article Title.” Periodical Title Date of print publication (if available): pages.

Database Name (if any). Publisher (if appropriate). Name of Providing

Library, Consortium or Library System. Date of

access.<http://address/filename&gt;.

Examples:

with volume and issue numbers:

Shopper, Ima B. “The Magic of the Suburban Mall.” Journal of American Geographers 53.4 (2008):

35-43. JSTOR. Springfield Township HS Lib. 2 Dec. 2008 <http://www.jstor.org/&gt;.

Inuko, Kitty. “Silencing the Feminine: Without a Mouth.” Journal of Popular Culture

5.6 (2008): 25-80. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Springfield Twnshp

HS Lib. 24 Nov. 2008 <http://infotrac.galegroup.com//‌?db=OVRC&gt;.

without volume and issue:

Clark, Charles S. “The FBI Under Fire.” CQ Researcher 11 April 1997:315-22. Springfield

Township HS Lib. 3 Sept. 2008.  <http: resource.cq.com>.

weekly magazine:

Brown, Susan. “Writing the Perfect Paper.” High School Weekly 12 Sept. 1996: 22.

EBSCOHost. ACCESS PA. 25 Nov. 2004.

<http://ehostweb14.epnet.com/&gt;.

newspaper:

Williams, Larry. “Speedy Internet May Spur Innovations.” Philadelphia Inquirer

16 Aug. 1996: A03. Montgomery County Lib. 7 Dec.

2005.<http://www.phillynews.com/archive.htm>.

“Biggest Liner Plunges to the Bottom at 2:20 AM.” New York Times 16 Apr. 1912:

1-2. ProQuest Historical Newspapers – Graphical. ProQuest. 6 Jan. 2009

<http://hn.bigchalk.com&gt;.


SIRS Online Products:

Format:

Author. “Article Title.” Original Source of Article Date of original source: pages.

Product Name. Name of Providing Library, Consortium or Library System.

Date of access. <http://address/filename&gt;.

Researcher example:

Frick, Robert. “Investing in Medical Miracles.” Kiplinger’s Personal Finance

Feb. 1999: 80-87. SIRS Knowledge Source: Researcher. (May substitute

Renaissance or Government Reporter) Springfield Township HS Lib. 25 July

1999. <http://sks.sirs.com/&gt;.


Facts.com:

Format:

“Article Title.” Original Source of the Article. Date of original source. Product Name.

Publisher. Name of Providing Library, Consortium or Library System. Date of

access.<http://address/filename&gt;.

Facts.com example:

“Safe Drinking Water Act Signed.” Facts On File World News Digest 22 Aug. 1996.

FACTS.com. Facts On File News Services. Springfield Township HS Lib. 20

Jan. 2004. <http://www.2facts.com&gt;.

“Issues and Controversies: Racial Disparities.” Issues and Controversies On File

13 Jan. 1996. FACTS.com. Facts On File News Services. Springfield

Township HS Lib. 15 Nov. 2004. <http://www.2facts.com&gt;.


GaleNet/Student  Resource Center or General Reference Center:

Format for a periodical reference:

Format:

Author. “Article Title.” Original Source of the Article Date of original source. Pages of original source.

Specific Database on Larger Database (if appropriate).  Gale Group. Name of Providing Library,

Consortium or Library System. Date of access. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

Example:

Brown, Charlie. “My Life in Cartoons.” Cartoon Week 21 Nov. 1999: 7-12. General Reference Center

Gold. Gale Group. Springfield Township HS Lib. 15 Dec. 2003. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

Format for an article that appeared in a book:

Format:

Author. “Article Title.” Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Date. Pages. Specific Database on

GaleNet on Larger Database (if appropriate). Name of Providing Library, Consortium or Library

System. Date of access. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

Example:

Hoffman, Baruch, Elaine. “The Golden Country: Sex and Love in 1984.”

Novels of our Century. New York: Harper and Row, 1983. 47-56.

Republished in Contemporary Literary Criticism Select on Student Resource

Center. Springfield Township HS Lib. 12 Nov. 2005. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

Format for a reference article (not previously published):

Format:

Author (if provided). “Article Title.” Specific Database on Student Resource Center.

Gale Group. Name of Providing Library, Consortium or Library System.

Date of access. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

Example:

“Classical Greek Civilization, 2000 B.C.-300 B.C.” DISCovering World History on Student

Resource Center. Gale Group. Springfield Township HS Lib. 12 Oct. 2004.

<http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

or

“Dean Koontz.” DISCovering Authors Modules on Student Resource Center. Gale Group.

Springfield Township HS Lib. 3 Dec. 2000. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

Format for a republished journal essay:

Format:

Author (if provided). “Article Title.” Original Source of Article Date of original source: Pages of original

source. Specific Gale Database on Larger Database (if appropriate). Gale Group. Name of

Providing Library, Consortium or Library System. Date of access. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

Example:

Levin, Harry. “Wonderland Revisited.” The Kenyon Review Autumn, 1965: 591-93. Contemporary

Literary Criticism Select on Literature Resource Center. Gale Group.

Springfield Township HS Lib. 13 Oct. 2004. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

or (when you have volume and issue numbers)

Jone, Bruce. “Steinbeck Redux.” Springfield Literary Review 55(3): 591-93. Contemporary

Literary Criticism Select on Literature Resource Center. Gale Group.

Springfield Township HS Lib. 3 Mar. 2004. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

or

Berger, Carol. “Profile of a Basketball Great.” Sports in Philadelphia 12 Nov. 1999. Biography

Resource Center. Gale Group. Springfield Township HS. Lib. 20 Dec. 2004.

<http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

Format for a journal article republished from a multi-volume reference series:

Author (if provided). “Article Title.” Original Source of Article. Editor. Volume: Pages of

original source. Specific Gale Database on Larger Database (if appropriate).

Gale Group. Name of Providing Library, Consortium or Library System. Date

of access. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

Examples:

Sturber, Robert.  “Imagery in Great Expectations.” Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism.

Ed. Carol Packard. 26: 235-50.  Literature Resource Center. Gale Group.

Springfield Township HS Lib. 23 Jan. 2003. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.

Shostak, Debra.  “Plot as Repetition: John Irving’s Narrative Experiments.”  Critique 37

(Fall 1995): 51-70.  Novels for Students on Literature Resource Center. Gale

Group.  Springfield Township HS Lib. 5 Jan. 2004. <http://galenet.galegroup.com&gt;.


e-book from netLibrary

Bloom, Harold.  Major Literary Characters: Hamlet. New York: Chelsea House, 1990. netLibrary.

ACCESS PA. 5 May 2004. <http://www.netlibrary.com&gt;.

If you are citing a chapter or section of the e-book:

Kirsch, Arthur. “Hamlet’s Grief.”  ELH 48.1 (1981): 17–36. Rpt. in Major Literary Characters: Hamlet. By

Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1990. netLibrary.  ACCESS PA.  5 May 2004.

<http://www.netlibrary.com&gt;

or if your teacher does not require original publishing information for a previously published article:

Kirsch, Arthur. “Hamlet’s Grief.”  Major Literary Characters: Hamlet. By Harold Bloom.

New York: Chelsea House, 1990. netLibrary. ACCESS PA.  5 May 2004.

<http://www.netlibrary.com&gt;


Biography Reference Bank

Format:

Author (if provided). “Article Title.” Original Source of Article. Date of original source. Pages of original

source (if available). Specific Database on WilsonWeb. Name of Providing Library, Consortium or

Library System. Date of access. <http://vweb.hwwilsonweb.com/&gt;.

Example:

“Edward Albee.” Current Biography . 1996. Biography Reference Bank.

ACCESS PA. 15 Dec. 2004.  <http://vweb.hwwilsonweb.com/&gt;.


Beyond Books

Format:

“Book: Section: Article Title.”  Date of Original Source. Name of Database. Apex

Learning. Name of Providing Library, Consortium or Library System. Date of

Access. <http://www.beyondbooks.com/&gt;.

Example:

“Shakespeare: Shakespeare’s London: Women.” 13 March 2003.  Beyond Books.com.

Apex Learning. Springfield Township HS Lib. 31 March 2003.

<http://www.beyondbooks.com/sha91/1f.asp&gt;.


CD-ROMs

Non-periodical (encyclopedias, etc.):

Format:

Name of Author (if given). “Title of Part of Work.” Title of Product. Edition or release, if

relevant. Publication medium CD-ROM. City of Publication: Publisher,

Year of publication.

Example:

Wallechinsky, David. “Olympic Games.” Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM. Redmond, WA:

Microsoft, 2004.

Examples of CD-ROMs:

When you are working with a journal reprint:

Ochshorn, Kathleen G. “A Cloak of Grace: Contradictions in ‘A Good Man is Hard to

Find’,” in Studies in American Fiction (18)1:13-7;

republished in EXPLORING Short Stories. CD-ROM. Detroit: Gale Research,

1998.

Gale biographies, character descriptions, overviews, or other material written by Gale on CD-ROM:

“Biography of William Shakespeare.” EXPLORING Shakespeare. CD-ROM. Detroit:

Gale Research, 1997.

or

Whicter, George F. “Dickinson, Emily Elizabeth.” Dictionary of American Biography on

CD-ROM. CD-ROM. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1997.


CD-ROM (Periodical)

Format:

Name of Author (if available). “Title of article.” Title of Journal or Newspaper Publication

information for printed source. Title of Database. Publication medium

CD-ROM. Name of Vendor (if relevant). Electronic publication date.

Example:

Nethead, Jane. “Email Rules.” New York Times 15 November 1995, late ed.: B3.

New York Times Ondisc. CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest. Jan. 1996.


E-Mail:

(Warning: Though many style sheets advise listing personal e-mail addresses in a citation, there is the danger of violating the privacy of the author or the recipient. The MLA Handbook does not recommend including addresses.)

Format:

Sender’s Last Name, First Name. “Subject Line from Posting.” Day Month Year of

Posting. Personal e-mail. (or E-mail to recipient’s name.) Day Month Year of Access.

Example:

Smith, William. “Trial results.” 12 Jan. 1999. E-mail to John Henry. 29 May 1999.


Listserv:

Format:

Author (if given). “Subject of Message.” Date of posting. Online posting. Name of Discussion List.

Access date. <URL or email address of the list.>.

Example:

Williams, Jim. “Computer to T.V. Screen.” 6 August 1995. Online posting. Global Technology

Discussion Group. 21 Nov. 1999. <http://www.gtdg.org&gt; or <listserv@citation.edu.>.


Online Chat or Synchronous Communication:

Format:

Name of Speaker. (if available). “Description of the event.” Date of session or event. Forum of the

communication. Date of access.<Web or network address>.

Example:

Yente, Ima. “Online discussion of future fuels.” 24 Oct. 1997. EnvironMOO. 28 June 2000.

<telnet://IRC@envirosite.edu>.


Images/Sound/Video Clips/AP Photo Archive

Online images

Format:

Artist if Available. “Description or Title of Image.” Online image. Date of image. Title of Larger Site.

Name of Providing Library, Consortium or Library System (if appropriate).  Name of organization (if

appropriate). Date of download.  <http://address.website.org&gt;.

Example:

“Mars Landing.” Online image. 3 Nov. 1999. NASA: Solar System Exploration. NASA. 4 Oct. 2006.

<http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Pluto&Display=Gallery&gt;.

or

Weaver, Bruce. “Challenger Explosion.” Online image. 28 Jan. 1986. AP Photo Archive.

ACCESS PA.  30 Jan. 1999. <http://accuweather.ap.org/cgi-bin/aplaunch.pl&gt;.


Blog entry

Valenza, Joyce K. “Citing a Blog Entry in MLA Style.” [Weblog entry.] Neverending Search. Springfield Township High School. 10 Jan. 2007. (http://joycevalenza.edublogs.org/permalink06). 31 Jan. 2007. Lastname, Firstname, “Title of individual blog entry.” [Weblog entry.] Name of Weblog. Sponsoring organization if any. Date posted. (URL) Date accessed. Wikis / Wikipedia

“Superman.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 21 Aug. 2006. Wikimedia Foundation. 22 Aug. 2006 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Superman&oldid=70920527>.


Online sound

Format:

Creator if Available. “Description or Title of Sound.” Date of Sound. Online sound. Title of Larger Site.

Date of download. <http://address.website.org&gt;.

Example:

“This Week’s Saturday Radio Address.” 25 Oct. 1998. Online sound. Whitehouse Briefing Room. 23

Oct. 2000. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/WH/html/briefroom.html&gt;.


Online video clip

Format:

“Description or Title of Video Clip.” Date of clip. Online video clip. Title of Larger Site.

Name of Providing Library, Consortium or Library System (if appropriate). Date of

download. <http://address.website.org&gt;.

Example:

“Hindenburg Broadcast.” 6 May 1937. Online video clip. Encarta Online Deluxe. Springfield Township

HS Lib. 4 Nov. 2000.  <http://encarta.msn.com/encarta/MediaMax.asp?z&gt;.


Style information based on:

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: Modern Language

Association, 2003.

“What is MLA Style?” Modern Language Association. 9 July 1998. 4 Mar. 2004.

<http://www.mla.org/main_stl-nf.htm>. Adapted from Power Tools: Recharged by Joyce Kasman

Valenza. Copyright 2004. American Library Association. Used by permission of ALA Editions.

Reproduction for nonprofit educational purposes permitted.

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